25 years old child, trying to exist amid this chaos by penning down his thoughts on philosophy, psychology, history & an eclectic mix of topics.

Is it a mosque? A cathedral? Or a museum?

Photo by Raimond Klavins on Unsplash

In July 2020, the Turkish government decided to convert/revert Hagia Sopha into a mosque — sparking a religiopolitical discourse on the global level. The said move not only became a subject of an intense international debate but also reinvigorated the dialogue vis-à-vis secular-religious dichotomy in the Turkish state.

The non-Muslim…

How religiously intolerant monarchs tortured and killed thousands of non-Christians?

Tomás de Torquemada speaking in front of Spanish monarchs, Source: ©Photos.com/Thinkstock

Coinciding with the fall of the last Islamic stronghold in the region — Emirate of Granada — the late 15th century saw the establishment of a religious institute to stifle the existence of non-Christians in the Spanish Kingdom.

It was a religious tribunal — set up by King Ferdinand II


The Capitulation of Granada, Muhammad XII surrenders to Ferdinand & Isabella, By Francisco Pradilla y Ortiz, Source: Wikimedia

The fragmentation of the Caliphate of Cordoba proved to be the beginning of the end for Muslim rule in the Iberian peninsula. The absence of leadership, decentralization of power, and the internal political struggle between principalities/taifas proved to be a turning point vis-à-vis Muslim rule in Spain.

1086–1248: Reign of Almoravids & Almohads

Christian rulers of…

How did the Second Rashidun Caliph conquer the city without bloodshed and usher in a new era of religious freedom & religious tolerance?

Photo: Mosque of Umar, Source: Islamicity

After its conquest and the subsequent massacre in 70 CE by Roman general Titus, Jerusalem remained under Roman/Byzantine rule for the better part of the next six centuries.

During the first half of Roman rule, most of the inhabitants of the city — known as Aelia Capitolina — were pagans…

Muhammad Zunair

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store